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仁爱版初三英语上册各单元重要知识点汇总

Unit1 The Changing World

Topic1 Our country has developed rapidly.

【重点短语和句型】

1. have a good summer holiday 暑假过得愉快

2. come back from 从......回来

3. have/has been to 去过

4. have/has gone to 去了

5. not...any more 再也不...

6. take photos 照相

7. by the way 顺便问一下

8. take part in 参加

9. around/all over/throughout the world 全世界

10. tell sb. something about... 告诉某人关于某事

11. have/live a happy/hard life 过着幸福/艰苦的生活

12. describe...in detail 详细描述

13. give support to 支持...

14. see...oneself 亲眼看见

15. keep in touch with 与...保持联系

16. far away 遥远的

17. kinds/sorts of 各种各样的...

18. not only...but also 不仅...而且...

19. make progress 取得进步

20. more than/over 多于

21. develop/improve rapidly 迅速发展/改善

22. tell sb. (not ) to do sth. 告诉某人(别)做某事

23. ask sb. (not ) to do sth. 要求某人(别)做某事

24. in order to do sth. 为了做某事

25. have to do sth. 不得不做某事

26. It's +形容词+for sb. to do sth. 对于某人来说做某事是...的

27. why not do sth. 为什么不做某事

28. succeed/be successful in doing sth. 成功地做某事

29. dream about doing sth. 梦想做某事

30. see/hear sb. do/doing sth. 看见/听见某人做/正在做某事

现在完成时

一. 现在完成时的基本结构

肯定句:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词+其他

否定句:主语+have/has+not+动词的过去分词+其他

一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词+其他

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他)

二. 现在完成时的用法

1. 现在完成时用来表示过去已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果。也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在,强调的是现在。

I have already posted the photo.

我已经邮寄出了照片。

与此种用法连用的时间状语时一些模糊的过去时间状语,如already(肯定句句中), yet(否定句/疑问句句尾), just, before, recently,still, lately,never等。

2. 现在完成时也可用来表示动作或状态发生在过去某一时刻,持续到现在并且有可能会继续持续下去。

He has lived here since 1978.

自从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。)

此种用法常与for(+时间段),since(+时间点或过去时的句子)连用。谓语动词必须是延续性动词。

有些瞬间动词可变为延续动词:

go out----be out   

finish----be over   

open----be open   

die----be dead   

buy---have   

fall ill---be ill   

come back----be back   

catch a cold----have a cold

Topic2 The population in developing

countries is growing faster.

【重点短语和句型】

1. get lost 迷路

2. a couple of 一些,几个

3. with the development of 随着...的发展

4. with the help of... 在...的帮助下

5. one of the+形容词最高级+名词复数 其中之一/最...的其中之一

6. each other 互相

7. call/ring sb.up 给某人打电话

8. at least 至少

9. sth. happen to sb. 某人发生某事

10. What happened to sb? 某人发生某事?

11. take place 发生

12. because of 因为,由于

13. be strict with sb./in sth. 对某人/某事严格要求

14. carry out 执行

15. thousands/millions/hundreds of 成千上万/无数的/成百上千...

16. two thousand/million/hundred 两千/百万/百(具体数字后面不加s)

17. half of... 一半...

18. two thirds 三分之二

19. be short of 短缺...

20. so far 到目前为止

21. be known/famous for 因...而闻名

22. be known/famous as 作为...而闻名

23. thanks to 幸亏...

24. have a long way to go 有很长的路要走

25. a town called... 一个叫做...的镇

26. fewer than/less than 少于

27. places of interest 名胜古迹

28. be interested in 对...感兴趣

29. such as 例如...

30. look/smell/sound/feel/taste+形容词 看/闻/听/摸/尝起来...

31. such a/an+形容词+sb./sth 如此...的人/物

32. take sb. to sp 带某人去某地

33. keep up with 赶上

34. have fun doing sth. 做某事很愉快

35. have a population of... 有...的人口

36. What's the population of...? ...有多少人口?

37. want to do sth. 想要做某事

38. hate to do sth 讨厌做某事

39. take measures to do sth. 采取措施做某事

40. have(no)chance/time to do sth. 有机会/时间做某事

41. used to do sth. 过去常常做某事

42. be used to do sth. 被用来做某事

43. be/get used to doing sth. 习惯做某事

44. work well in doing sth. 在...方面起到显著作用

常用于现在完成时的时间状语:already, just , yet, ever, never, recently.

e.g.

1. I have just called you.

2. ——Have you ever been to France?

——No, I’ve never been to any European countries.

3. ——Have you seen him yet?

——Yes, I have seen him already.

Topic3 The world has changed for the better.

1. with the money 用这些钱

2. so that 为了,以致于

3. so...that... 如此...以致于...

4. in fact/as a matter of fact 事实上

5. come for a visit 来参观

6. in need 在困难时

7. decide on sth. 决定某事

8. provide sth. for sb./provide sb. with sth. 为某人提供某物

9. feel good about... 对...有信心

10 lend sth. to sb/lend sb. sth. 把某物借给某人

11. borrow sth. from sb. 向某人借某物

12. at the same time 与此同时

13. talk on the phone 在电话中交谈

14. take drugs 吸毒

15. pay for 付款

16. buy sth. for sb. 给某人买某物

17. at home and abroad 在国内外

18. send sb. to sp. 送某人去某地

19. send for sb. 派人去请某人

20. aim to do sth. 目的是做某事

21. decide(not)to do sth. 决定(不)做某事

22. finish doing 结束做某事

23. How do you like.../What do you think of...? 你觉得...怎么样?

24. sb.spend st.in doing sth=It takes sb.st. to do sth. 某人花费...时间做某事

25. sb.spend some money on sth.=sb.pay some money for sth. 某人花费...钱买某物

26. so+be/助动词/情态动词+主语 表示后者情况与前者一样(表肯定)

neither/nor+be/助动词/情态动词+主语 表示后者情况与前者一样(表否定)

27. so +主语+/be/助动词/情态动词 表示的确如此

1. 现在完成时:常与for或since引导的时间状语连用,表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在。

e.g. You have been in New York for a long time.

The city has improved a lot since I came here a few years ago.

2. 构词法:

合成词: home +work= homework

派生词: use——useful, happy——unhappy

Unit2 Saving the Earth

Topic1 Population causes too many problems.

1. chemical factory 化工厂

2. pour… into… 把……排放到……

3. in a bad mood 处在不好的情绪中

4. manage to do sth. 设法去做某事

5. do harm to … / be harmful to… 对……有害

6. quite a few 相当多

7. no better than 同…….一样差

8. in pubic 公开地

9. all sorts of 各种各样的

10.in many ways 在许多方面

1. Look, there are several chemical factories pouring waste water into the streams.

看,有几家化工厂正往河里排放废水。

2. Everything has changed.一切已发生了变化。

3. How long have you been like this? 你像这样多长时间了?

4. I’m always in a bad mood because I can’t stand the environment here.

我的情绪总是很差因为我受不了这里的环境。

5. However, not all people know that noise is also a kind of pollution and is harmful to humans’health.

然而,并非所有的人都知道噪音也是一种污染,而且有害于人类健康。

直接引语和间接引语

1. Granny said, “I’m feeling even worse.”

Granny said that she was feeling even worse.

2. “ Do you still want to live here, Granny?” the journalist asked.

The journalist asked Granny if she still wanted to live there.

3. “ How is the environment around this place?” the journalist asked.

The journalist asked how the environment around that place was.

Topic2 All these problems are very serious.

1. as a result 结果

2. here and there 到处

3. in the beginning 一开始

4. in danger 处于危险中

5. cut down 砍倒

6. change sth. into sth. 把……变成……

7. prevent from 防止

8. greenhouse effect 温室效应

9. refer to 提到

10. deal with 处理

12. cut off 中断

1. As we know, none of us likes pollution. 众所周知,没有人喜欢污染。

2. Humans have come to realize the important of protecting animals. 人类逐渐意识到保护动物的重要性。

3. Trees can also stop the wind blowing the earth away. 树木也能防风固土。

4. Cutting down trees is harmful to human beings, animals and plants. 砍伐树木对人类、动植物都有害。

5. Some things we’ve done are very good for earth while some are not good. 我们所做的,有些对地球很好,而有些不利。

6. They can also prevent the water from washing the earth away.它们也能阻止水土流失。

7. When it rains or when the wind blows, the earth is taken away. 天一下雨或刮风,土就会被冲走或刮走。

不定代词

1. 定义: 指的是那些不指明代替任何特定名词或形容词的代词。

2. 用法: 在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。something , somebody, anything, anybody等作主语时,通常视为单数。当形容词修饰它们时,要放在其后。

e.g. But the government has done something useful to protect the environment.

Topic3 What kinds of things can we do

to protect the environment?

1. not only…but also… 不仅……而且……

2. be supposed to 应该

3. ought to 应该

4. turn off 关掉

5. instead of 代替

6. on time 准时

7. make sure 确保

8. push forward向前推

9. push down 向下

10. pull up 向上拉

1. For example, we should use both sides of paper and reuse plastic bags.

例如,我们应该用纸的两面,并且重新使用塑料袋。

2. Everyone is supposed to do that.每个人都有义务那样做。

3. First, you ought to turn off the lights when you leave a room.首先,你离开房间时应该随手关灯。

4. Easier said than done. 说起来容易做起来难。

5. Well, actions speak louder than words. 嗯,百说不如一做。

6. There will be a lot of hard work to do tomorrow, so make sure you go to bed early tonight.

明天有许多繁重的活要干,今晚一定要早睡。

并列句:由两个或两个以上并列而又相互独立的简单句构成。

结构为:简单句+并列连词+简单句

常用的并列连词有:and, or, but, while, not only… but also...

e.g. 1. The river is dirty and the temperature of the earth is rising.

2. They work well, but they are slow and can’t run for long.

Unit3 English Around the World

Topic1 English is widely spoken throughout the world.

【重点词语】

1. be able to=can 能够,会

2. can’t wait to do sth. 迫不急待地做某事

3. have a (good) chance to do sth. 有(好)机会做某事

4. practice doing sth. 练习做某事

5. be made by… 被……制做

be made of/from… 由……制成

be made in… 在某地制造

6. on business 出差

7. be similar to… 和……相似

8. translate…into… 把……翻译成……

9. have no/some trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事没有/有些困难

10. once in a while=sometimes/at times 偶尔,间或

11. whenever=no matter when 无论何时

12. as well as 以及

13. mother tongue 母语

14. take the leading position 处于领先地位

15. encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事

16. call for 号召

1. Disneyland is enjoyed by millions of people from all over the world. 世界上数以百万的人们都喜欢迪斯尼乐园。

2. I hope I can go there one day. 希望有一天我能去那儿。

3. English is widely spoken around the world. 英语在世界上被广泛使用。

4. It is also spoken as a second language in many countries. 在许多国家它也被用作第二语言。

5. It is possible that you will have some trouble. 你可能会遇到一些麻烦。

6. It’s used as the first language by most people in America,Canada,Australia ,Great Britain andNew Zealand. 它被美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、英国和新西兰的大多数人用作第一语言。

7. And two thirds of the world’s scientists read English. 并且世界上三分之二的科学家用英语阅读。

一般现在时的被动语态

英语语态有主动语态和被动语态两种。

主语是动作的执行者,叫主动语态。如:We clean the classroom. 我们打扫教室。

主语是动作的承受者,叫被动语态。如:The classroom is cleaned (by us).教室被(我们)打扫。

1. 被动语态的构成:助动词be+及物动词的过去分词+(by+宾语)

其中by意为“被……;由……”,表动作的执行者。

如:The glass is broken by that boy.玻璃杯是那个男孩打破的。

be有人称、数和时态的变化,其肯定式、否定式、疑问式的变化规则与be作为连系动词时完全一样。

如:English is widely spoken around the world. (肯定式)

English is not widely spoken around the world. (否定式)

---Is English widely spoken around the world? (疑问式)

---Yes, it is./No, it isn’t.

2. 被动语态的用法:

(1)在没有指明动作的执行者或者不知道动作执行者的情况下可用被动语态。如:This coat is made of cotton.这件大衣是棉制的。

(2)要强调动作的承受者而不是执行者时,用被动语态。如:Her bike is stolen.她的自行车被偷了。

3. 主、被动语态的转换:

主动语态:主语+及物动词谓语动词+宾语(+其它)

被动语态:主语+be+及物动词的过去分词+by+宾语(+其它)

注意:(1)主动、被动互转时,时态不变。

(2)主动句的主语是代词的主格形式,变成被动态by的宾语时,要用宾格形式。如:

(1) People grow rice in the south.

Rice is grown (by people) in the south.

(2) She takes care of the baby.

The baby is taken care of (by her).

Topic2 English is spoken differently in

different countries.

【重点词语】

1. by the way 顺便说一下

2. depend on 取决于……;依靠……

3. be different from 与……不同

4. succeed in 成功,达成

5. make yourself understood 表达你自己的意思

6. on one’s way to 在某人去……的路上

7. see sb. off 给……送行

8. leave for…前往某地/leave…for… 离开…去…

9. in twenty minutes 二十分钟之后

10. written English 笔头英语/oral English 英语口语

11. generally speaking 一般说来,大致上说

12. as for sb./sth. 至于某人/某物

13. be close to… 靠近……

14. in person 身体上,外貌上;亲自

15. be found of… 爱好……

16. be forced to do sth. 被迫做……

force sb.to do 强迫某人做某事

17. even worse 更糟的是

1. Is Australia English the same as British English? 澳式英语和英式英语一样吗?

2. English is spoken differently in different English-speaking countries. 不同的国家使用不同的英语。

3. For example, there are differences between British English and American English. 例如,在英式英语和美式英语之间有些不同点。

4. I can’t believe that I’m flying to Disneyland. 我简直不敢相信我就要飞往迪斯尼乐园了。

5. I hope I won’t have any difficulty. 我希望不会遇到什么困难。

6. Whenever you need help, send me an-mail or telephone me.

无论何时你需要帮忙,给我发电子邮件或打电话。

7. Not only children but also adults enjoy spending their holidays in Disneyland. 不但青少年而且成年人也喜欢到迪斯尼乐园度假。

用现在进行时表示将来

现在进行时表示将来时,常有“意图”、“安排”(但不是固定不变的)或“打算”含义。它表示最近或较近的将来,所用的动词多是位移动词。

如:come, go, arrive, leave, fly, start, begin, return, open, die

I’m going. 我要走了。

When are you starting? 你什么时候动身?

Don’t worry. The train is arriving here soon. 别着急,火车马上就到了。

表示将来的现在进行时除了用于位移动词外,亦可用于某些非位移动词。

如:My uncle is meeting us tomorrow. 我叔叔明天会见我们。

She is buying a new bike soon. 她不久将买一辆新自行车。

Topic3 Could you give us some advice on

how to learn English well?

1. in public在 公共场所

2. at times=sometimes 有时

3. feel like doing=would like to do 想要做……

4. give up sth./doing sth. 放弃

5. turn to sb. for help 求助于某人

6. give sb. some advice on/about… 给某人一些有关……的建议

7. be weak in 在……方面很差/be good at 在……方面很好

8. be afraid of doing sth. 害怕做某事

9. make mistakes 犯错误

10. take a deep breath 深呼吸

11. the best time to do 做某事最好的时间

12. do some listening practice 做些听力训练

13. reply to=answer 回答

14. advise sb. to do 建议某人做某事(名词advice)

1. Could you make yourself understood in the U.S.A? 在美国,别人能懂得你的话吗?

2. I don’t know what to do. 我不知道该怎么办?

3. At times I feel like giving up. 有时我想要放弃。

4. Try to guess the meanings of the new words, and get the main idea of the article. 尽量猜测生词的意思,理解文章的大意。

5. I dare not answer questions in class, because I’m afraid of making mistakes. 我不敢在课堂上回答问题,困为我害怕犯错误。

6. It’s an honor to talk with all of you. 与在座的各位交谈是我的荣幸。

7. But remember to choose the ones that fit you best. 但是记住要选择最适合你的一种。

8. I insist that you practice English every day. 我坚持认为你们每天都应该练习英语。

9. Believing in yourself is the first step on the road to success. 自信是通往成功的第一步。

wh- +to do

wh-是指when, where, which, who(m)及how等连接词,它们和动词不定式连用,即为wh- +to do结构。这种结构在句中常作主语、表语和宾语,作宾语时可以转换为宾语从句。(对于谓语动词来说,wh- +to do这个不定式动词的动作是个尚未发生的动作,所以在转换成宾语从句时,通常须加情态动词或用将来时表示未来。)

如:I don’t know what to do.=I don’t know what I should do.

She can’t decide which to buy.=she can’t decide which she will buy.

反之,如果主句中的主语与宾语从句中的主语一致时,宾语从句(由疑问词引导)通常可以与“疑问词+不定式”互相转换。

如:I don’t know what I should do.=I don’t know what to do.

如果不一致就不能转换。I want to know what Mary will do.(不能说:I want to know what to do.)

Unit4 Amazing Science

Topic1 When was it invented?

1. go around 环绕

2. send…into… =send up…into… 把……送入......

3. congratulations on sth 祝贺某事

4. be proud of 为……而自豪

5. be moved by 为……而感动

6. Thanks/Thank you for +n./ving sth 感谢某人做的某事

7. have physical examinations 做体检

8. in good/bad health 处于好(不好)的身体状态

9. can’t help doing 情不自禁做……

10. take turn to (do sth) 轮流(做某事)

11. no doubt 疑地

12. as well as 除……的之外,也

13. for instance/example 例如

14. work on 做……(方面)的工作

15. depend on/upon 依靠,依赖

16. turn on 打开

17. turn off 关掉

18. turn up 开大

19. turn down 关小

20. click on 用鼠标点击

21. look forward to doing sth 期待做某事

1. Now big plans are being made to send up more satellites and even build a space station.现在中国正在计划发射更多的卫星,甚至建造一个空间站。

2. I’m moved by what Yang Liwei did. 我被杨利伟所做的事感动了。

3. Generally speaking, we are in good health now. 一般来说,我们现在的健康状况良好。

4. We couldn’t help looking at the earth again and again. 我们忍不住再三地看着地球。

5. I was able to fall asleep as soon as I got into the sleeping bag.

We took turns to have a rest. 一进入睡袋我就睡着了。我们轮流休息。

6. It has proved that China has made great progress in developing its space industry. 这证明了中国航天业的发展已取得了巨大的进步。

7.There is no doubt that computers are widely used by workers in business and technology.毫无疑问,电脑被商业,科技工作者广泛地应用.

8. Computers have made the world smaller, like a “village”. 电脑使得世界变小了,就像一个“村庄”。

宾语补足语

宾语补足语用来补充说明宾语,与宾语一起构成复合宾语。可作宾语补足语的有名词、形容词、副词、介词和动词不定式等。

(一)名词、形容词、副词、介词短语作宾语补足语。如:

1. We call him Jim.(名词) 我们叫他吉姆。

2. We must keep our school clean every day.(形容词) 我们必须每天保持校园清洁。

3. Call him in, please.(副词) 请叫他进来。

4. Leave it on the desk.(介词短语) 把它留在课桌上。

(二)动词不定式作宾语补足语可分为三种情况

1. 跟带to的不定式作宾语补足语。常见的这类动词有:ask, tell, get, teach, want, invite, like, allow, wish, encourage等。如:Tell Jane to sing us a song.叫简给我们唱支歌。

2. 跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。常见的这类动词有“一感(feel)、二听(listen to, hear),三让(make, let, have),四看(look at, see, watch, notice)如:Let’s have a rest.让我们休息一会儿。

但这种结构变成被动语态时,to必须加上。如:He was seen to leave the room with a book in his hand.有人见他手拿着一本书离开这个房间。

3. 跟带to或不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。这类动词只有help。如:

Can you help me (to) wash my clothes ? 你能帮我洗衣服吗?

(三)分词作宾语补足语可分为两种情况

1. 现在分词作宾语补足语,经常表示正在发生的动作。可跟这类补足语的动词有:see, watch, hear等。如:

I hear somebody singing in the next room. 我听见有人在隔壁唱歌。

2. 过去介词作宾语补足语,经常表示被动。如:

You need to have your hair cut. 你需要理发了。

Topic2 I'm excited about the things that

will be discovered in the future.

【重点短语】

1. be used for +ving 被用做……

2. come true 实现

3. It’s said that 据说

4. during/in one’s life 某人一生

5. be known as 以……(身份)而著名

6. know/say for certain 确切知道/肯定地说

7. all the time 一直,总是

8. no longer=not…any longer 不再

=(no more, not…any more)

9. as long as 只要

10. as far as 就……,尽……

11. make a great contribution 对…...作出巨大贡献

12. the rest of the time 在其余地时间里

13. at any time 在任何时候

【重点句型】

1. Because I’m not allowed to play computer games. 因为我不可以玩电脑游戏。

2. How do you say this in English? 这用英语怎么说?

3. It’s made from wood. 它用木材做的。

4. It’s used for helping us to improve our English. 它用来帮助我们提高英语水平。

5. People are surprised at the rapid development of robots. 人们为机器人的飞速发展感到惊讶。

6. They will no longer want to be our servants, but our masters.它们将不再愿意做我们的人,而要做我们的主人。

7. This method worked well at night as long as the weather was good and the stars could be seen. 在夜间只要天气晴朗,能看见星星,这种方法就能很好地发挥作用。

【重点语法】

一. 一般过去时的被动语态

谓语部分的基本形式是be的过去式was/were+及物动词的过去分词。如:

When was it made? 它是什么时候制造的?

It was made in 1980.它是1980年制造的。

When was the digital camera invented? 数码像机是什么时候发明的?

It was invented in 1975. 它是1975年发明的。

二. 时间前所用介词的速记歌

年月周前要用in,日子前面却不行。

遇到几号要用on,上午下午又是in。

要说某日上下午,用on换in才能行。

午夜黄昏须用at,黎明用它也不错。

at也用在时分前,说“差”可要用上to。

说“过”只可使用past,多说多练牢牢记,莫让岁月成蹉跎。

Topic3 China is the third nation that

sent a person into space.

1. travel by spaceship 乘宇宙飞船旅行

2. in the future 在未来

3. in order to 为了

4. on the radio 通过收音机

5. take part in 参加

6. grow up 成长,长大

7. prefer…to 喜欢……胜过……

8. What’s worse 更为糟糕的是

9. be worth it 有好处,值得一干

10. at a distance of 相隔

11. send sb a message 给某人发送信息

【重点句型】

1. I don’t think aliens can be found in space. 我认为外星人不可能出现在太空里。

2. It has been two days since we landed on Mars. 自从我们登上火星以来已经两天了。

3. What’s worse, our water supplies were very low. 更糟糕的是,我们的水供给是非常有限的。

4. It’s a quarter as big as the earth. 它是地球的四分之一大。

5. Mars goes around the sun at a distance of about 228 million kilometers. 恒星在相隔大约228000000千米的地方绕着太阳转动。

【重点语法】

情态动词的被动语态

情态动词的被动语态由“情态动词+be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。如:Aliens can not be seen on the earth. 在地球上不可能见到外星人。

Other planets may be visited soon in the future. 将来其他的星球也会有人登陆。

Scientific research should be done carefully. 应该认真地进行科学研究。

These trees must be watered in time. 这些树应该及时浇水。
2019年原创资源大赛