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2019高考英语经典长难句分析及重点词汇用法 (3)

51. The study, published in 2009, found that when writing with a pen and paper,participantswrote longer essays and more complete sentences and had a faster word productionrate.

这项研究发表于2009年,它发现用笔和纸来写,参与者写的文章更长,写的句子更完整,写单词的速度更快。

【句式分析】本句复合句,that 引导宾语从句,从句中又有一个when引导的状语从句,published在句中作后置定语,writing作状语。

【词语点拨】1) participant n. 参加者 participate vi.参与

He is an active participant in the civil rights movement.

他是人权运动的积极参加者。

Terry can’t participate in the match because he has hurt his foot.

特里不能参加比赛,因为他扭了脚。

2) rate n.比率;速度

House prices are rising at a higher rate than inflation.

房价比通货膨胀上涨的比率高。

The car was going at the rate of 40 miles an hour.

轿车以每小时40里的速度行驶。

【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语, 具体用法参见第26句。

2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。

52. But the donator who started sending envelopes with cash to deserving causes, accompanied by an article from the local paper, has made a northern German city believe in fairytales.

但是,捐赠者开始给值得关注的事业发送装有现金的信封,当地报纸随之发表一篇文章,这一切使一个德国北部城市相信童话。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,who 引导限制性定语从句,修饰the donator,sending 作宾语,accompanied作状语。

【词语点拨】1) deserving adj.值得的(后面常接介词of) deserve v.值得

A job well done is deserving of praise.

一件工作做得好应该受到表扬。

If you do wrong, you deserve punishment.

你如做错事, 应当受罚。

2)accompany vt.陪伴

Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa.

肯答应陪我一起去非洲。

Jane was willing to accompany you to the park to go out for a walk.

简愿意陪你去公园散步。

【语法点拨】1)过去分词作状语, 具体用法参见第41句。

2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。

53. Basic Math starts from the relatively easier concepts and gradually moves on to the more troublesome ones, so as to allow for steady and sure understanding of the material by students.

基础数学源自相对容易的概念,逐渐转移到更麻烦的,以便允许学生能稳定地、有把握地理解材料。

【句式分析】本句是简单句,so as to allow在句中作目的状语。

【词语点拨】1) gradually adv.逐渐地

The drugs work well at first but gradually lose their effectiveness.

这些药的效果起初非常好,但后来逐渐失效。

After months of work, the new book is gradually taking shape.

经过几个月的努力,这本新书渐渐成型了。

2)allow v. 允许,常用于以下结构:

①allow doing 允许做

They allowed smoking in this room only.

他们只允许在这间屋子里抽烟。

②allow sb to do允许某人做

My boss doesn’t allow me to use the telephone.

我的老板不允许我用电话。

③allow sb sth让某人有

I will allow you 10% off the price if you pay now.

如果你现在付款,我可以给你打九折。

④allow sb in/out/up允许某人进来/出去/起床

The patient was allowed up after ten days.

十天后病人才被允许起床(下地)。

⑤allow for考虑到,把……考虑进来,体谅

We should allow for every possible delay.

我们考虑到任何可能的延误。

【语法点拨】不定式作目的状语,具体用法参见第21句。

54. Professor H. Siegel, honored by Kentucky Educational Television as“the best math teacher in America,”is a devoted teacher and has a gift for explaining mathematical concepts in ways that make them seem clear and obvious.

H•西格尔教授被肯塔基州教育电视尊称为是“美国最好的数学老师”,他是一个尽职的教师,在解释数学概念方面很有天赋,能把这些概念解释得清楚明了。

【句式分析】本句复合句,that在句中引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词ways,honored作后置定语。

【词语点拨】1) devoted adj.忠诚的;挚爱的 devote vt. 奉献,把……用于

He married well and happily and was a devoted father and husband.

他婚姻美满幸福,是位尽职尽责的父亲,忠实的丈夫。

The editors devoted a whole page to the discussion of the housing problem.

编辑用一个整版来讨论住房问题。

2) have a gift for = have a talent for在……方面有天赋

You have a surprising gift for seeing into people's minds.

你有惊人的才能,能看出别人的心思。

Yang Liping has a love for music and a gift for dancing.

杨丽萍热爱音乐,并具有舞蹈天赋。

【语法点拨】过去分词作定语, 具体用法参见第44句。

55. For example, there’re the obvious tendency to smile when smiled at and there are less obvious changes that reflect emotions of surprise, anger or sadness such as a change in our heart rate and blood pressure.

例如,别人朝你笑你很可能笑,反映惊讶,愤怒或悲伤情绪的变化不太明显,如我们的心率和血压的变化。

【句式分析】本句复合句,when在句中引导省略的状语从句,that引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词changes,smiled at作状语。

【词语点拨】1)tendency n.倾向;趋势;tend v.倾向

Prices continue to show an upward tendency.

物价呈继续上升的趋势。

There was a tendency in him to walk away from the impossible thing.

而对无能为力的事情,他往往就绕开走了。

People tended to accept her invitations.

人们都乐于接受她的邀请。

2)reflect v. 反映;反射; reflection n.反射;映像

Does this letter reflect how you really think?

这封信反映你的真实想法吗?

Every solid object will reflect a sound.

任何固体都能反射声音。

One can see the reflection of the tower in the water.

塔的影子倒映在水中。

【语法点拨】过去分词作状语, 具体用法参见第41句。

56. Fans used to be crazy about a specific film, but now the public tends to base its consumption on the interest of celebrity attached to any given product.

粉丝过去会对一部具体的电影而疯狂,但是现在,公众的消费倾向于建立在对名人的兴趣上,这些名人与某种指定的产品有联系。

【句式分析】本句是并列连词but连接的复合句,attached to…作后置定语。

【词语点拨】1)used to过去经常,表示过去的习惯动作或状态,后接动词原形。其否定式为:used(n)’t to/ didn’t use to;be/get used to 习惯于,其中的 to 是介词,后接名词或动名词。如:

His uncle used to live in Paris.

他的叔叔过去一直住在巴黎。

Nancy usedn’t /didn’t use to eat so many sweet things.

南希过去不常吃那么多的甜食。

You used to play basketball, usedn’t /didn’t you?

你过去常打篮球,是吗?

Charles is used to looking after himself.

查尔斯习惯于自己照顾自己。

2)attach vt. 缚上;系上;附加;连接;构成短语:①attach oneself to依附;热爱,依恋② be attached to连在……上,附属于;热爱,依恋③attach importance to认为……重要

Attach a stamp to the envelope and mail the letter.

把邮票贴在信封上,把信寄出去。

The cities attach great importance to the pollution problem.

这些城市非常重视污染问题。

A couple should be deeply attached to each other.

夫妻应该相亲相爱。

The little girl attached herself to her English teacher.

这个小姑娘非常喜欢她的英语老师。

【语法点拨】过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。

57. Their study found that theobromine, found in cocoa, was nearly a third more effective in stopping coughs than codeine, which was considered the best cough medicine at present.

他们的研究发现可可含有的可可碱治疗咳嗽的有效性比可待因高三分之一,可待因目前被认为是最好的治咳嗽的药。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,which在句中引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词codeine,found in cocoa作后置定语。

【词语点拨】consider v.考虑;认为

I’m considering going abroad some day.

我一直考虑有一天出国。

He considered how he should answer the question.

他考虑应当怎样回答这个问题。

We have to consider what material to use first.

我们先得考虑用什么材料。

We consider that a friend in need is a friend indeed.

我们认为患难之友才是真正的朋友。

At first they considered me as a doctor.

起初他们认为我是医生。

We consider this matter to be very important.

我们认为这件事很重要。

【语法点拨】过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。

58. Supported by his academic research, Professor Salovey suggests that whenpredicting someone’s future success, their character, as measured by EQ tests, might actually matter more than their IQ.

萨洛维教授在他学术研究的基础上提出, 在预测一个人未来的成功时, 他的性格,通过情商测验来衡量, 也许比他的智商更为重要。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,that引导宾语从句,从句中包含有一个when引导的省略的状语从句,supported 和predicting在句中作状语。

【词语点拨】1)support vt. 支撑;支持;供养;为…提供资金;n. 支持;支撑物;赡养

They supported us in the struggle for an increase in pay.

他们支持我们争取增加工资。

The research was supported by the government.

这项研究由政府出资。

I depend on my friends for emotional support.

我靠朋友给我感情支持。

Her job is the family’s only means of support.

她家全靠她的工作维持生计。

2)suggest vt.建议;表明。当“建议”讲时,后面可以接动名词,接从句时,从句用虚拟语气;当“表明”时,后面的从句常用陈述语气。

His pale face suggested that he was badly ill.

他苍白的脸色表明他病得很厉害。

suggest bringing the meeting to an end.=I suggest that we should bring the meeting to an end.

我建议结束会议。

【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。

2)过去分词作状语,具体用法参见第41句。

59. For example, many companies now have to invest a lot of money in information technology and staff training in order to cope with the “phone rage”-- caused by delays in answering calls,being cut off in mid-conversation or left waiting for long periods.

例如,许多公司现在不得不在信息技术和职员培训上投资很多钱以便处理电话投诉—未及时接电话、谈话中线路中断或让等候太久引起投诉。

【句式分析】本句是简单句,many companies作主语,have to invest作谓语,in order to cope作目的状语,caused作后置定语,delays和being cut off作介词by的宾语。

【词语点拨】1)delay v.&n.延迟;耽搁;后面可以接doing作宾语

The passengers were delayed for an hour.

乘客被延误了一个小时。

We decided to delay going on our holiday till next month.

我们决定把假期推迟到下个月。

The strike caused a great delay in the delivery of the mail.

这次罢工严重地延误了邮件的投递。

2)cope with 对付

Do not imagine that you can cope with all the problems.

别以为你能处理所有这些问题。

I don’t know how she copes with looking after her family and doing a full-time job.

既要照顾家庭又要工作,我不知道她是怎样应下来的。

3) cause v.引起;导致 n.原因;事业

The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major cause of global climate change.

在公众中缺少对环境有利的习惯被认为是导致全球气候变化的主要起因。

The cause which attracted him most was the abolition of the slave trade.

最吸引他的事业是废除买卖奴隶。

Could you tell me what caused you to change your mind?

你能告诉我是什么让你改变了主意吗?

【语法点拨】1)不定式作目的状语,具体用法参见第21句。

2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。

3)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。

60. With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can providethe nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence, according to Intermountain Therapy Animals(ITA)in salt Lake City.

据盐湖城的ITA的观点,闪烁着棕色眼睛,摇着尾巴,并有无条件的爱心,狗能成为无判断力的(忠实的)听者,这是刚开始阅读的小孩所需要的。

【句式分析】本句是简单句,dogs作主语,can provide作谓语,shining, wagging和needed都作定语。

【词语点拨】1) provide vt.提供;构成短语:provide sb with sth=provide sth for sb给某人提供……

These events provided the inspiration for his first novel.

这些事件给了他创作第一部小说的灵感。

In a word, we’ll provide you with all good service.

我们将为你们提供最好的服务。

2) confidence n.信心;构成短语:have confidence in…在……方面有信心

We have full confidence that we shall succeed.

我们完全有把握取得成功。

We have full confidence in our victory.

我们有必胜的把握。

A sick person needs absolute confidence and trust in a doctor.

病人需要对医生有绝对的信心和信任。

【语法点拨】1)现在分词作定语,具体用法参见第35句。

2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。

61. Shay’s father knew that most of the boys would not want someone like Shay on their team, but the father also understood that if his son, mentally and physically disabled, wereallowed to play, it would give him a much-needed sense of belonging and some confidence.

Shay 的爸爸明白大多数孩子是不想让Shay这样的孩子在队里的, 但爸爸也明白如果他的身心都有残障的孩子可以打球,这会给他急需的归属感和自信。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,两个that都引导宾语从句,第二个宾语从句包含一个条件从句,条件从句运用了虚拟语气。

【词语点拨】1)allow vt. 允许,具体用法参见第53句。

2) sense n.感觉;感官;意义;make sense有意义;有道理;make sense of理解

Can you make sense of what this book says?

你能理解这本书的内容吗?

I’m afraid I haven’t got a very good sense of direction, so I easily get lost.

恐怕我的方向感很差, 因此我容易迷路。

His sense of touch gradually took the place of sight.

他的触觉逐步代替了视觉。

【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气:

①表示与现在事实相反的假设,从中的谓语动词用“过去式(be的过去式用were)”,主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might+do”。如:

If I were you, I wouldn’t refuse his invitation.

如果我是你,我不会拒绝他的请求。

If Mr. Smith had time now, he would attend the meeting.

如果史密斯先生有时间,他会参加会议的。

②表示与过去事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“had done”,主句中用“would/should/could/might+have done”。如:

If you had worked hard, you wouldn’t have failed in the examination.

如果你努力学习,你就不会考试不及格了。

③表示与将来事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“should do/were to do/过去式”,主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might+动词原形”。如:

If it rained/ were to rain/ should rain tomorrow, don’t expect me.

万一明天下雨,就别等我了。

④错综时间虚拟条件句:所谓错综时间虚拟条件句即条件从句与主句所指时间不一致,比如,从句指过去,而主句却指的是现在或将来。此时应根据具体的语境情况,结合上面提到的三种基本类型对时态作相应的调整。如:

If you’d listened to me, you wouldn’t be in such trouble now.

如果你听了我的话,你现在也不会有这样的麻烦了。

⑤当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时,if可省略,而将were, should, had等词置于句首。如:

Should he agree to go there, we would send him there.

要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。

Were she here, she would agree with us.

如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。

Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here.

如果她懂一些电脑知识的话,我们会已经聘用他来这里工作了。

62.In the past, if someone like me had failed to get into university through the college exam, he would have had no chance of getting a degree.

过去,像我这样不能通过高考而进入大学的人士,是没有机会拿到学位的。

【句式分析】本句是复合句, if引导条件状语从句,从句中运用了虚拟语气。

【词语点拨】fail v. 失败;使失望

I wouldn’t lose courage even if I should fail ten times.

即使要失败十次,我也绝不灰心。

You can always rely on Jim, he won’t fail you.

你可以永远信任吉姆, 他不会让你失望的。

The words fail to convey the meaning.

词不达意。

【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第61句。

63.Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy.

有些社会科学家建议,西方人应该利用古代中国人的智慧来弥补西方哲学体系当中的不足。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,that引导宾语从句,从句中运用了虚拟语气。

【词语点拨】1)take advantages of 利用;占……的便宜

He’s joining the club in order to take advantage of the others.

他入会是来揩油的。

In spring we usually set the clocks ahead one hour to take advantage of the summer daylight.

春季我们通常把钟拨快一小时以充分利用夏天的白昼。

2)make up for补偿,弥补;make up组成;补足;化妆;编造

Hard work can often make up for a lack of ability.

努力工作经常可以弥补能力的不足。

It didn’t take her long to make up.

她很快就化妆好了。

The teacher helped his pupils make up the lessons they had missed.

教师给学生补课。

The imaginative child always likes to make up fairy tales.

充满想象力的孩子喜欢编造神话故事。

Five doctors and two nurses make up a medical team.

五位医生和两位护士组成一个医疗队。

【语法点拨】宾语从句中的虚拟语气:

在表示“坚持”、“命令”、“建议”、“要求”等动词后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。这类动词可以归纳为“一个坚持(insist)、两个命令(order, command)、三个建议(advise, suggest, propose)、四个要求(demand, require, request, ask)”,这类虚拟语气由“should + 动词原形”构成,其中的should常可以省略。如:

The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here.

老师劝我们要好好地利用在这儿的每一分钟。

The Party asked that we should serve the people heart and soul.

党要求我们要全心全意地为人民服务。

但是,当insist的意思为“坚决认为,坚持说”;suggest的意思为“表明,暗含,暗示”等时,宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。如:

Tom insisted that he hadn’t stolen the watch.

汤姆坚持说他没有偷那块手表。

His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam.

他的微笑表明他在考试中成功了。

64.If American athlete Marion Jones hadn’t taken drugs, would she have made it to the Olympics at all?

如果美国运动员玛丽昂·琼斯没有服用兴奋剂的话,她能成功地进军奥运会吗?

【句式分析】本句是复合句,if引导状语从句,从句中运用了虚拟语气。

【词语点拨】make it及时到达;成功;约定时间。具体用法参见第45句。

【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第61句。

65. Their money would be wasted if the message didn’t reach its target audience, in other words the people the advertisement intends to persuade.

如果信息不能传达给它的目标群体,也就是广告意图说服的人群的话,那么他们的钱就白花了。

【句式分析】本句是复合句, if引导条件从句,条件从句运用了虚拟语气,the advertisement intends …是定语从句,修饰先行词the people。

【词语点拨】1)in other words换句话说

Joe doesn’t like work -- in other words, he’s lazy!

乔不爱劳动―换句话说,他懒惰!

2) persuade vt.说服;劝说;固定短语:persuade sb to do sth=persuade sb into doing sth说服某人做某事。persuade意为“说服”,指劝说成功;advise意为“劝说”,不一定成功。

Mrs Green persuaded her husband to go to see the doctor.

格林太太说服丈夫去看病。

Nobody can persuade Linda to change her mind once it is made up.

一旦琳达下定决心就没有人可以说服她改变主意。

We advised the villagers to move immediately to a safe place,but they were not persuaded.

我们劝村民立即转移到安全的地方,但是没说服他们。

3) intend vt. 计划;打算

①intend to do/doing sth 打算做某事……

Nowadays more and more young men intend to study/studying abroad.

现在越来越多的年轻人打算出国留学。

②intend sb to do sth 打算让某人做某事

intend Tom to go the concert with me.

我打算让汤姆跟我一块去听音乐会。

③intend sth或intend+从句“打算,想”

You misunderstood George. He intended no harm.

你误会乔治了,他没有恶意。

Mr. Black intended that his son should take over the business.

布莱克先生打算让他的儿子接管生意。

④be intended for……是用来,为……设计/准备

This English newspaper is intended for the middle school student.

这份英语报纸是给中学生用的。

⑤be intended as/to be 打算作为……之用

The book was intended as a pleasant surprise for her sister but was lost in the mail. 这本书原本是作为惊喜送给她姐姐的,但是邮寄丢了。

【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第61句。

66. Had Yeats stopped writing at age 40, he would probably now be valued as a minor poet, for there is no other example in literary history of a poet who produces his greatest works between the ages of 50 and 75.

如果叶芝在40岁停止写作,现在他有可能是个名不见经传的诗人,因为在文学史上没有其他的诗人能在50岁和75岁之间写出他最伟大的作品。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,Had Yeats stopped…是虚拟条件从句,省略了if,for引导并列句,who引导限制性定语从句。

【词语点拨】value v. 重视,看重 n.价值 be valued as被认为是

Frank is greatly valued as a good student.

弗兰克被认为是个好学生。

If you value your health then you’ll start being a little kinder to yourself.

如果你重视自己的健康,你就要开始对自己好一点。

Not too much can be said about the value of early rising.

早起的好处是说不尽的。

【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第61句。

67. Still, he could not help thinking that if anything should happen, the nearest person hecontact by radio, unless there was a ship nearby, would be on an island 885 miles away.

他禁不住寻思起来,要是果真有什么意外,除非附近有条船,他用无线电能联系上的最近的人也远在885英里以外的岛上。

【句式分析】本句是复合句,that 引导宾语从句,其中又包含有一个if条件从句和unless条件从句,if条件从句中运用了虚拟语气。

【词语点拨】1)can’t help doing禁不住 can’t help (to)do不能帮助做

This cinema is so impressive that we can't help crying.

这影片如此感人以至我们禁不住流下泪来。

The medicine can’t help to get rid of your cold.

这药不能帮你治好感冒。

2) contact v.接触;与……联系 n.接触;联系

We agreed to contact again as soon as possible.

我们同意尽快再次联系。

Apparently he never tried to contact her all these years.

显然这些年来他没有跟她联系过。

The pilot was trying to make contact with his base.

飞行员正试图与基地联系。

She is still in close contact with Sarah.

她仍然同萨拉联系密切。

【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第61句。

68. Asimov had both an extraordinary imagination that gave him the ability to explore future worlds and an amazing mind with which he searched for explanations of everything, in the present and the past.

阿西莫夫不仅有着超凡的想象力使他能够对未来世界进行探索,而且还有惊人的智力,使他能对现在的和过去的各种事物做出解释。

【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句: that …引导的定语从句修饰先行词imagination ,with which…引导的定语从句修饰先行词mind。

【词语点拨】1)explore vt.探测,探索

The children have gone exploring in the woods.

孩子们去林中探险了。

2)search for 寻找

As they entered the forest, they began to search for a suitable camping spot.

当他们进入森林时,就开始寻找合适的露营地点。

【语法点拨】本句中with which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词,在此结构中指物只能用which。如:

According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble.

根据冰岛和挪威的传说,埃里克·雷德因一起谋杀案而被迫离开冰岛。

69. Among his most famous works of science fiction, one for which he won an award was “The Foundation Trilogy” (1951-1953), three stories about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future.

在他那些最富盛名的科幻小说中,那本获奖的书叫做《基地三部曲》(1951-1953),书有三个小故事组成,讲的是未来银河系中一个伟大帝国的灭亡与复兴。

【句式分析】本句包含一个介词+关系代词引导的定语从句,for which …修饰先行词worksof science fiction; three stories about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future作The Foundation Trilogy 的同位语。

【词语点拨】1) work n.「U」工作,劳动「C」常作works,有时作a work, 著作,作品

I particularly like the works by Da Vinci.

我尤其喜欢达芬奇的作品。

We all consider it as a work of genius.

我们都视它为一件极具天才创意的作品。

2) award n.「C」奖,奖金;vt 授予,给予

She showed us the athletics awards she had won.

她给我们看她赢得的体育运动奖。

He was awarded a medal for bravery. 他因勇敢而获得一枚奖章。

【语法点拨】本句中for which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词,在此结构中指物只能用which。具体用法参见第68句。

70. Many people fear it could be the next global epidemic, especially as scientists who studied tissue from the bodies of people who died of the 1918 Spanish Flu proved that Bird Flu is a modern adaptation of the same virus.

许多人担心它会成为下一个全球性的传染病,特别是在一些科学家研究了死于1918年西班牙大流感的人的尸体组织后,证明了禽流感是同一种病毒的现代变异体。

【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句, who studied …修饰先行词scientists; who died of …修饰先行词people; that Bird Flu is …引导宾语从句,作prove 的宾语。

【词语点拨】1) especially adv. 特别,尤其,通常对前面所描述的事件进行进一步的说明或补充;specially adv. 专门地,强调目的。

He likes all subjects, especially English.

他喜欢所有的学科,尤其是英语。

I made this cake specially for you.

我特意为你做的这个蛋糕。

2)adaptation n. 改编;适应;adapt vt. 使适应

I gradually adapted myself to living on my own.

我逐渐适应了独立生活。

3)prove vt.证明,证实 vi.「用作系动词」证明是

It has been proved that eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illnesses in later life.

经证实,童年时吃蔬菜可帮助日后不生大病。

The book has proved (to be )very successful.

事实证明这本书非常成功。

【语法点拨】本句中定语从句who studied …修饰先行词scientists; 定语从句who died of …修饰先行词people; who 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人并在从句中作主语或宾语。如:

All the boys who are now swimming in the river are from Wuhan.

所有在河里游泳的孩子都来自武汉。

I’ve become good friends with several of the students who I met in the English speech contest last year.

我与好几位去年在英语演讲比赛中结识的同学成了好朋友。

71. He discovered small areas of mist which were in fact galaxies like our own, millions of light years away from us, which proved that the universe was vastly larger than had previously been thought.

他发现小的雾区实际上是像我们自己的星系一样的星系,离我们有几百万光年之远,这一发现证明了宇宙比我们以前想象的要大得多。

【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,which were in fact…修饰先行词small areas of mist; which proved that…修饰前面整个句子。

【词语点拨】1)in fact 实际上,其实

In fact, exercise produces chemicals that are good for your brain.

事实上,运动产生的化学物质对你的大脑有益。

【语法点拨】本句中定语从句which were in fact …修饰先行词small areas of mist; 定语从句which proved that …修饰前面整个句子;which 作为关系代词引导定语从句指物或指整个主句的内容,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。如:

It sounded like a train which was going under my house.

那响声听起来就像一列火车在我的房子底下开过似的。

He was very rude to the customs officer, which, of course, made things even worse.

他对海关官员非常无理,这当然使得事情更糟糕了。

72. It is a language without words that consists of gestures, facial expressions and body movements that greatly add to -- and sometimes even replace -- spoken language.

它是一种没有字词,由手势、面部表情和身体动作组成的语言,它极大地丰富了—后悔有时甚至取代了—口头语言。

【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,that consists of …修饰先行词a language; that greatly add to…修饰gestures, facial expressions and body movements。

【词语点拨】1)consist of 由……组成

Life consists of not only sunshine but also hard times.

生活中不仅有阳光,还有艰难困苦。

2)add to 增加

Colorful umbrellas add to a lively atmosphere in the summer streets.

各色阳伞给夏日街头增添了活泼的气氛。

3) replace vt替换,更换;把……放回原处

We’d be happy to replace the radio for you.

我们愿意为您更换这个录音机。

He suggested that we should replace the magazines after reading.

他建议我们阅读完杂志后放回原处。

【语法点拨】本句中定语从句that consists of …修饰先行词a language; 定语从句that greatly add to…修饰gestures, facial expressions and body movements; that作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。如:

The number of people that has lost homes reached as many as 250,000.

无家可归的人数达到25万。

The purpose of the trip was to record the wildlife and plants that we could find in the forest.

这次行动的目的是把我们在森林里发现的野生动植物都一一做好记录。

73. However, instead of showing real, existing structures, he used photographs to make upimaginary structures that best represented the different architectural styles.

然而,他并没有展现真实存在的建筑结构,而是用照片聚合成一个想象中的最能代表不同建筑风格的结构图。

【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,that best represented…修饰先行词imaginary structures。

【词语点拨】1)instead of 代替,而不是

I worried that instead of making money, I would end up owing it.

我担心我最终会欠债而不会赚钱。

2)represent vt. 代表,象征

He is the ideal person to represent our class.

他是代表我们班的理想人选。

The word “love” is often represented by a heart.

“爱”这个词常以心形来表示。

【语法点拨】本句中定语从句that best represented…修饰先行词imaginary structures。that作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语, 具体用法参见第71句。

74. One reason why we may dislike reading our own work is that we’re often disappointed that the rich ideas in our minds seem very thin and plain when first written down.

我们不喜欢读自己著作的一个原因是:当读它的时候,我们往往会感到失望,因为我们脑海中丰富的想法在初稿中却显得苍白无力。

【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,why we may dislike…修饰先行词one reason。

【词语点拨】1) dislike vt.不喜欢,厌恶

I enjoy learning English, but I dislike remembering new words.

我喜欢学英语,但不喜欢记生词。

2) plain adj.简朴的,简单的;清楚的,明白的

She used to wear a plain but elegant dress.

她过去常穿朴素淡雅的连衣裙。

He made it plain to us that he didn’t wish to continue.

他向我们明白的表示他不想继续下去了。

【语法点拨】本句中定语从句why we may dislike…修饰先行词reason。why作为关系副词引导定语从句在从句中作原因状语。如:

The reason why we haven’t seen her these days is that she has been in hospital.

我们近些天没有见到她的原因是她住院了。

75. According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble.

根据冰岛和挪威的传说,埃里克·雷德因一起谋杀案而被迫离开冰岛。

【句式分析】本句包含一个介词+关系代词引导的定语从句,for which …修饰先行词a murder。

【词语点拨】1) according to 根据,按照

According to a UN report, some 844 animals and plants have disappeared in the last 500 years.

联合国报告指出,在过去的500年里,已有约844个物种消失。

2) force vt.强迫,迫使;force sb to do/ into doing 强迫某人做某事

We forced the enemy to surrender/ into surrendering.

我们迫使敌人投降。

3) commit vt.犯(错误、罪行),干(坏事,傻事;使承担义务,作出保证

Smoking is committing suicide slowly.

吸烟等于慢性自杀。

Both sides committed themselves to settle the problem peacefully.

双方承诺和平解决问题。

【语法点拨】本句中for which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词, 在此结构中指物只能用which. 具体用法参见第68句。

2019届高三各学科一轮复习精编