51. The study, published in 2009, found that when writing with a pen and paper,participantswrote longer essays and more complete sentences and had a faster word productionrate.
【词语点拨】1) participant n. 参加者 participate vi.参与
He is an active participant in the civil rights movement.
Terry can’t participate in the match because he has hurt his foot.
2) rate n.比率；速度
House prices are rising at a higher rate than inflation.
The car was going at the rate of 40 miles an hour.
52. But the donator who started sending envelopes with cash to deserving causes, accompanied by an article from the local paper, has made a northern German city believe in fairytales.
【句式分析】本句是复合句，who 引导限制性定语从句，修饰the donator，sending 作宾语，accompanied作状语。
【词语点拨】1) deserving adj.值得的（后面常接介词of） deserve v.值得
A job well done is deserving of praise.
If you do wrong, you deserve punishment.
Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa.
Jane was willing to accompany you to the park to go out for a walk.
53. Basic Math starts from the relatively easier concepts and gradually moves on to the more troublesome ones, so as to allow for steady and sure understanding of the material by students.
【句式分析】本句是简单句，so as to allow在句中作目的状语。
【词语点拨】1) gradually adv.逐渐地
The drugs work well at first but gradually lose their effectiveness.
After months of work, the new book is gradually taking shape.
2）allow v. 允许，常用于以下结构：
①allow doing 允许做
They allowed smoking in this room only.
②allow sb to do允许某人做
My boss doesn’t allow me to use the telephone.
③allow sb sth让某人有
I will allow you 10% off the price if you pay now．
④allow sb in/out/up允许某人进来/出去/起床
The patient was allowed up after ten days.
We should allow for every possible delay.
54. Professor H. Siegel, honored by Kentucky Educational Television as“the best math teacher in America,”is a devoted teacher and has a gift for explaining mathematical concepts in ways that make them seem clear and obvious.
【词语点拨】1) devoted adj.忠诚的；挚爱的 devote vt. 奉献，把……用于
He married well and happily and was a devoted father and husband.
The editors devoted a whole page to the discussion of the housing problem.
2) have a gift for = have a talent for在……方面有天赋
You have a surprising gift for seeing into people's minds.
Yang Liping has a love for music and a gift for dancing.
55. For example, there’re the obvious tendency to smile when smiled at and there are less obvious changes that reflect emotions of surprise, anger or sadness such as a change in our heart rate and blood pressure.
【词语点拨】1）tendency n.倾向；趋势；tend v.倾向
Prices continue to show an upward tendency.
There was a tendency in him to walk away from the impossible thing.
People tended to accept her invitations.
2）reflect v. 反映；反射; reflection n.反射；映像
Does this letter reflect how you really think?
Every solid object will reflect a sound.
One can see the reflection of the tower in the water.
56. Fans used to be crazy about a specific film, but now the public tends to base its consumption on the interest of celebrity attached to any given product.
【词语点拨】1）used to过去经常，表示过去的习惯动作或状态，后接动词原形。其否定式为：used(n)’t to/ didn’t use to；be/get used to 习惯于，其中的 to 是介词，后接名词或动名词。如：
His uncle used to live in Paris.
Nancy usedn’t /didn’t use to eat so many sweet things.
You used to play basketball, usedn’t /didn’t you?
Charles is used to looking after himself.
2）attach vt. 缚上；系上；附加；连接；构成短语：①attach oneself to依附；热爱，依恋② be attached to连在……上，附属于；热爱，依恋③attach importance to认为……重要
Attach a stamp to the envelope and mail the letter.
The cities attach great importance to the pollution problem.
A couple should be deeply attached to each other.
The little girl attached herself to her English teacher.
57. Their study found that theobromine, found in cocoa, was nearly a third more effective in stopping coughs than codeine, which was considered the best cough medicine at present.
【句式分析】本句是复合句，which在句中引导非限制性定语从句，修饰先行词codeine，found in cocoa作后置定语。
I’m considering going abroad some day.
He considered how he should answer the question.
We have to consider what material to use first.
We consider that a friend in need is a friend indeed.
At first they considered me as a doctor.
We consider this matter to be very important.
58. Supported by his academic research, Professor Salovey suggests that whenpredicting someone’s future success, their character, as measured by EQ tests, might actually matter more than their IQ.
萨洛维教授在他学术研究的基础上提出, 在预测一个人未来的成功时, 他的性格，通过情商测验来衡量, 也许比他的智商更为重要。
【词语点拨】1）support vt. 支撑；支持；供养；为…提供资金；n. 支持；支撑物；赡养
They supported us in the struggle for an increase in pay.
The research was supported by the government.
I depend on my friends for emotional support.
Her job is the family’s only means of support.
His pale face suggested that he was badly ill.
I suggest bringing the meeting to an end.=I suggest that we should bring the meeting to an end.
59. For example, many companies now have to invest a lot of money in information technology and staff training in order to cope with the “phone rage”-- caused by delays in answering calls,being cut off in mid-conversation or left waiting for long periods.
【句式分析】本句是简单句，many companies作主语，have to invest作谓语，in order to cope作目的状语，caused作后置定语，delays和being cut off作介词by的宾语。
The passengers were delayed for an hour.
We decided to delay going on our holiday till next month.
The strike caused a great delay in the delivery of the mail.
2）cope with 对付
Do not imagine that you can cope with all the problems.
I don’t know how she copes with looking after her family and doing a full-time job.
3) cause v.引起；导致 n.原因；事业
The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major cause of global climate change.
The cause which attracted him most was the abolition of the slave trade.
Could you tell me what caused you to change your mind?
60. With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can providethe nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence, according to Intermountain Therapy Animals（ITA）in salt Lake City.
【句式分析】本句是简单句，dogs作主语，can provide作谓语，shining, wagging和needed都作定语。
【词语点拨】1) provide vt.提供；构成短语：provide sb with sth=provide sth for sb给某人提供……
These events provided the inspiration for his first novel.
In a word, we’ll provide you with all good service.
2) confidence n.信心；构成短语：have confidence in…在……方面有信心
We have full confidence that we shall succeed.
We have full confidence in our victory.
A sick person needs absolute confidence and trust in a doctor.
61. Shay’s father knew that most of the boys would not want someone like Shay on their team, but the father also understood that if his son, mentally and physically disabled, wereallowed to play, it would give him a much-needed sense of belonging and some confidence.
Shay 的爸爸明白大多数孩子是不想让Shay这样的孩子在队里的， 但爸爸也明白如果他的身心都有残障的孩子可以打球，这会给他急需的归属感和自信。
【词语点拨】1）allow vt. 允许，具体用法参见第53句。
2) sense n.感觉；感官；意义；make sense有意义；有道理；make sense of理解
Can you make sense of what this book says?
I’m afraid I haven’t got a very good sense of direction, so I easily get lost.
His sense of touch gradually took the place of sight.
If I were you, I wouldn’t refuse his invitation.
If Mr. Smith had time now, he would attend the meeting.
②表示与过去事实相反的假设时，条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“had done”，主句中用“would/should/could/might＋have done”。如：
If you had worked hard, you wouldn’t have failed in the examination.
③表示与将来事实相反的假设时，条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“should do/were to do/过去式”，主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might＋动词原形”。如：
If it rained/ were to rain/ should rain tomorrow, don’t expect me.
If you’d listened to me, you wouldn’t be in such trouble now.
⑤当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时，if可省略，而将were, should, had等词置于句首。如：
Should he agree to go there, we would send him there.
Were she here, she would agree with us.
Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here.
62.In the past, if someone like me had failed to get into university through the college exam, he would have had no chance of getting a degree.
【词语点拨】fail v. 失败；使失望
I wouldn’t lose courage even if I should fail ten times.
You can always rely on Jim, he won’t fail you.
The words fail to convey the meaning.
63.Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy.
【词语点拨】1）take advantages of 利用；占……的便宜
He’s joining the club in order to take advantage of the others.
In spring we usually set the clocks ahead one hour to take advantage of the summer daylight.
2）make up for补偿，弥补；make up组成；补足；化妆；编造
Hard work can often make up for a lack of ability.
It didn’t take her long to make up.
The teacher helped his pupils make up the lessons they had missed.
The imaginative child always likes to make up fairy tales.
Five doctors and two nurses make up a medical team.
在表示“坚持”、“命令”、“建议”、“要求”等动词后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。这类动词可以归纳为“一个坚持(insist)、两个命令(order, command)、三个建议(advise, suggest, propose)、四个要求(demand, require, request, ask)”，这类虚拟语气由“should + 动词原形”构成，其中的should常可以省略。如：
The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here.
The Party asked that we should serve the people heart and soul.
Tom insisted that he hadn’t stolen the watch.
His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam.
64.If American athlete Marion Jones hadn’t taken drugs, would she have made it to the Olympics at all?
65. Their money would be wasted if the message didn’t reach its target audience, in other words the people the advertisement intends to persuade.
【句式分析】本句是复合句, if引导条件从句，条件从句运用了虚拟语气，the advertisement intends …是定语从句，修饰先行词the people。
【词语点拨】1）in other words换句话说
Joe doesn’t like work -- in other words, he’s lazy!
2) persuade vt.说服；劝说；固定短语：persuade sb to do sth＝persuade sb into doing sth说服某人做某事。persuade意为“说服”，指劝说成功；advise意为“劝说”，不一定成功。
Mrs Green persuaded her husband to go to see the doctor.
Nobody can persuade Linda to change her mind once it is made up.
We advised the villagers to move immediately to a safe place，but they were not persuaded.
3) intend vt. 计划；打算
①intend to do/doing sth 打算做某事……
Nowadays more and more young men intend to study/studying abroad.
②intend sb to do sth 打算让某人做某事
I intend Tom to go the concert with me.
You misunderstood George. He intended no harm.
Mr. Black intended that his son should take over the business.
④be intended for……是用来，为……设计/准备
This English newspaper is intended for the middle school student.
⑤be intended as/to be 打算作为……之用
The book was intended as a pleasant surprise for her sister but was lost in the mail. 这本书原本是作为惊喜送给她姐姐的，但是邮寄丢了。
66. Had Yeats stopped writing at age 40, he would probably now be valued as a minor poet, for there is no other example in literary history of a poet who produces his greatest works between the ages of 50 and 75.
【句式分析】本句是复合句，Had Yeats stopped…是虚拟条件从句，省略了if，for引导并列句，who引导限制性定语从句。
【词语点拨】value v. 重视，看重 n.价值 be valued as被认为是
Frank is greatly valued as a good student.
If you value your health then you’ll start being a little kinder to yourself.
Not too much can be said about the value of early rising.
67. Still, he could not help thinking that if anything should happen, the nearest person hecontact by radio, unless there was a ship nearby, would be on an island 885 miles away.
【词语点拨】1）can’t help doing禁不住 can’t help (to)do不能帮助做
This cinema is so impressive that we can't help crying.
The medicine can’t help to get rid of your cold.
2） contact v.接触；与……联系 n.接触；联系
We agreed to contact again as soon as possible.
Apparently he never tried to contact her all these years.
The pilot was trying to make contact with his base.
She is still in close contact with Sarah.
68. Asimov had both an extraordinary imagination that gave him the ability to explore future worlds and an amazing mind with which he searched for explanations of everything, in the present and the past.
【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句: that …引导的定语从句修饰先行词imagination ,with which…引导的定语从句修饰先行词mind。
The children have gone exploring in the woods.
2)search for 寻找
As they entered the forest, they began to search for a suitable camping spot.
【语法点拨】本句中with which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词，在此结构中指物只能用which。如：
According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble.
69. Among his most famous works of science fiction, one for which he won an award was “The Foundation Trilogy” (1951-1953), three stories about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future.
【句式分析】本句包含一个介词+关系代词引导的定语从句，for which …修饰先行词worksof science fiction; three stories about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future作The Foundation Trilogy 的同位语。
【词语点拨】1) work n.「U」工作，劳动「C」常作works，有时作a work, 著作，作品
I particularly like the works by Da Vinci.
We all consider it as a work of genius.
2) award n.「C」奖，奖金；vt 授予，给予
She showed us the athletics awards she had won.
He was awarded a medal for bravery. 他因勇敢而获得一枚奖章。
【语法点拨】本句中for which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词，在此结构中指物只能用which。具体用法参见第68句。
70. Many people fear it could be the next global epidemic, especially as scientists who studied tissue from the bodies of people who died of the 1918 Spanish Flu proved that Bird Flu is a modern adaptation of the same virus.
【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句， who studied …修饰先行词scientists; who died of …修饰先行词people; that Bird Flu is …引导宾语从句，作prove 的宾语。
【词语点拨】1) especially adv. 特别，尤其，通常对前面所描述的事件进行进一步的说明或补充；specially adv. 专门地，强调目的。
He likes all subjects, especially English.
I made this cake specially for you.
2)adaptation n. 改编；适应；adapt vt. 使适应
I gradually adapted myself to living on my own.
3)prove vt.证明，证实 vi.「用作系动词」证明是
It has been proved that eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illnesses in later life.
The book has proved (to be )very successful.
【语法点拨】本句中定语从句who studied …修饰先行词scientists; 定语从句who died of …修饰先行词people; who 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人并在从句中作主语或宾语。如：
All the boys who are now swimming in the river are from Wuhan.
I’ve become good friends with several of the students who I met in the English speech contest last year.
71. He discovered small areas of mist which were in fact galaxies like our own, millions of light years away from us, which proved that the universe was vastly larger than had previously been thought.
【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句，which were in fact…修饰先行词small areas of mist; which proved that…修饰前面整个句子。
【词语点拨】1)in fact 实际上，其实
In fact, exercise produces chemicals that are good for your brain.
【语法点拨】本句中定语从句which were in fact …修饰先行词small areas of mist; 定语从句which proved that …修饰前面整个句子;which 作为关系代词引导定语从句指物或指整个主句的内容，在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。如：
It sounded like a train which was going under my house.
He was very rude to the customs officer, which, of course, made things even worse.
72. It is a language without words that consists of gestures, facial expressions and body movements that greatly add to -- and sometimes even replace -- spoken language.
【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句，that consists of …修饰先行词a language; that greatly add to…修饰gestures, facial expressions and body movements。
【词语点拨】1)consist of 由……组成
Life consists of not only sunshine but also hard times.
2）add to 增加
Colorful umbrellas add to a lively atmosphere in the summer streets.
3) replace vt替换，更换；把……放回原处
We’d be happy to replace the radio for you.
He suggested that we should replace the magazines after reading.
【语法点拨】本句中定语从句that consists of …修饰先行词a language; 定语从句that greatly add to…修饰gestures, facial expressions and body movements; that作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物，在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。如：
The number of people that has lost homes reached as many as 250,000.
The purpose of the trip was to record the wildlife and plants that we could find in the forest.
73. However, instead of showing real, existing structures, he used photographs to make upimaginary structures that best represented the different architectural styles.
【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句，that best represented…修饰先行词imaginary structures。
【词语点拨】1)instead of 代替，而不是
I worried that instead of making money, I would end up owing it.
2）represent vt. 代表，象征
He is the ideal person to represent our class.
The word “love” is often represented by a heart.
【语法点拨】本句中定语从句that best represented…修饰先行词imaginary structures。that作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物，在从句中作主语、宾语或表语, 具体用法参见第71句。
74. One reason why we may dislike reading our own work is that we’re often disappointed that the rich ideas in our minds seem very thin and plain when first written down.
【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句，why we may dislike…修饰先行词one reason。
【词语点拨】1) dislike vt.不喜欢，厌恶
I enjoy learning English, but I dislike remembering new words.
2) plain adj.简朴的，简单的；清楚的，明白的
She used to wear a plain but elegant dress.
He made it plain to us that he didn’t wish to continue.
【语法点拨】本句中定语从句why we may dislike…修饰先行词reason。why作为关系副词引导定语从句在从句中作原因状语。如：
The reason why we haven’t seen her these days is that she has been in hospital.
75. According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble.
【句式分析】本句包含一个介词+关系代词引导的定语从句，for which …修饰先行词a murder。
【词语点拨】1) according to 根据，按照
According to a UN report, some 844 animals and plants have disappeared in the last 500 years.
2) force vt.强迫，迫使；force sb to do/ into doing 强迫某人做某事
We forced the enemy to surrender/ into surrendering.
3) commit vt.犯（错误、罪行），干（坏事，傻事;使承担义务，作出保证
Smoking is committing suicide slowly.
Both sides committed themselves to settle the problem peacefully.
【语法点拨】本句中for which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词， 在此结构中指物只能用which. 具体用法参见第68句。