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高中英语短文改错解题方法

一、动词形

主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。

例如:My favourite sport is football. I was a member of our school football team.(was→am)

Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library.(is→are)

上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。

二、名词数

指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。

如:

…so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subject→subjects)

三、区分形和副

区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:

I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (wonderfully→wonderful)

Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. (Unfortunate→Unfortunately)

需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。

四、非谓动词细辨别

这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:

…in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. (interesting→interested)

Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … (Play→playing)

My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… (to)

上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动和进行的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来的含义。

五、习惯用法要记住

主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭配错误。例如:It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… (for→of)

We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. (of)

六、句子成分多分析

不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语境要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:They ∧ eager to know everything about China and…(were)

I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. (where→which)

第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是受汉语习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。

七、逻辑错误须关注

与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. (his →their)

First, let me tell you something more about myself. (去掉more)

… no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someone at home reads instead. ( someone →everyone)

上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一样,大家又都读书了,所以该用 everyone。除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:

She was smiling but nodding at me. (but→and)

It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest. (and→or)

We may be one family and live under a same roof.( a→the)
2018年高考解析